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Date Title Body
09/06/2017 - 5:43pm I feel bad

for players who are fraudently recruited by coaches who have already secretly made plans to work at another school the following year. (I believe this happened at OSU a year or two back.)

How would you feel about an NCAA rule forcing coaches to sit out a year after after leaving one school for another? Or are BS restrictions only for the politically weak and powerless? These people are playing for free. Who are we to tell them how and where they have to work to give us entertainment content for free?

07/27/2017 - 12:05am Looks like the tide of the rivalry

had turned by 1894. I wonder if it was Cornell that called it off at that point.

I think UM should leap at the chance to play Cornell in Detroit. I bet we could take them.

07/11/2017 - 8:22pm "Billy

Taylor’s 1971 game-winning touchdown at Ohio State.

This game was in Ann Arbor.

05/15/2017 - 9:42pm ...
04/22/2017 - 7:45pm I give up.

Where is the image of the Michigan football helmet in question?

02/22/2017 - 5:50pm Not to mention


02/22/2017 - 5:47pm Now

I'm hungry.

02/15/2017 - 4:27pm You mean

"covering up?

I think they're on top of it.

02/11/2017 - 3:03am Pix?


02/08/2017 - 11:42pm I always thought

that was from the 2009 OSU-USC game. I felt a little like this after the Iowa game this year. Maybe more irritated.

02/03/2017 - 2:40pm Someone needs to be there

to step in to keep student athletes from being forced to go to Rome, Italy on their spring break.

02/03/2017 - 2:38pm Tsar


01/30/2017 - 6:04pm I live in ATL as well

and I'm not at all sure what I want to happen. I've been pulling for Brady every year; the Falcons making a real go of things makes it complicated.

I do know there is a waitress at the Moonshadow on Lawrenceville Highway who is pulling publicly and without fear for the Pats; I think she will be there for the game.

Any year there is no Dallas is above average as far as I am concerned.

01/26/2017 - 10:54am I just logged in

to post a comment on the irony of the word "hypocrisy" occurring in the same sentence with the word "Freep" without directly modifying the word "Freep."

This looks as good a place as any. I will return to my day now.

01/25/2017 - 8:56pm Always loathed him.

Starting probably with his opportunistic-sounding cheerleading for the Dark Side in the 1984 OSU game. OSU was still coasting on the media darling status earned between '52 and '68, and Musberger was all into it. I was sick of it by then.

Flash forward to his 2006-era promotion (during the USC-UCLA game, which USC inconveniently lost then and there) of a re-match of UM's 47-21 bashing of ND: would be "a great game." (Part of the E-SEC-SPN narrative that an OSU-UM MNC rematch, or anything nice for UM, was impermissable.)

To me, a shameless huckster and peddler of BS narratives. And always ready to stab UM in the back. Never forget.

12/07/2016 - 5:07pm Still miss BattleZone.

11/28/2016 - 7:25pm A friend once told me

that bright ideas happen more quickly if they start with the words "Is it allright if I do this" than they do if they start with the words "I think you should do this".

11/28/2016 - 6:56pm Please don't tell me

you miss the days when more people knew who the AD was than knew who the football HC was.

Although you could get home tickets for the price of two glasses of Coke product.

11/28/2016 - 6:53pm Respectively disagree.

Changes always happen more quickly when they are accellerated by a shitstorm of voluminously and forcefully expressed public outrage.

Harry Belefonte tells a story of an A. Phillip Randolph visit to the FDR White House. FDR listened to APR list a litany of demands over dinner, and then told him: "I agree with every one. Now you need to organize and FORCE me to do it."

Leaders go where they think the public is going (unless they are affirmatively evil). But they need to be reminded.

11/27/2016 - 1:31pm Yeah,

and so do touchdowns, completed passes, successful defensive calls, and so on.

The argument here is that faithless reffing is one of those difference-makers here, and apparently our folks don't like that.

What is your point?

11/27/2016 - 1:21pm Faithless referees

also destroy mistake-free games as well.

Ohio State made mistakes as well. Not every team that made mistakes in that game could lose. Both teams made mistakes. Neither team deserves to lose solely on that basis.

The argument here is that unforgiveable referee malfeasance changed the outcome of the game. Mistakes have nothing to do with it.

Unless you want to argue that the only way you deserve to win at all is to win 78-0.

11/27/2016 - 1:11pm I'm still waiting

for an Mgoforensic review of the Lantry FG attempt v. OSU in '74. I think that one was more consequential.

11/27/2016 - 1:09pm So you want

to get rid of the scent of corruption and favoritism:

suggested that officiating be run by the NCAA nationally

Let the NCAA handle it. (They handled the UM-Louisville bb final, didn't they?). That should "fix" things.

11/26/2016 - 7:06pm This thread

is political and potentially incendiary, and getting involved to balance the feedback is risky. Upvotes to you.

11/26/2016 - 10:28am Do you mean

(late) 1800s technology?

11/19/2016 - 7:48pm Some more of these . . .
11/09/2016 - 5:42pm $165, max.

Increasing labor expense 1000% will raise the retail less than 10%.

11/09/2016 - 5:39pm Conjugate

the same way as "fart."

11/09/2016 - 5:38pm People seem to shit on you

no matter what.

It seemed to start with the Brandon email. Things got very intense then and a lot of people called for your head of which but a few publicly apologized afterword. This was the climactic moment of a very dark era with hints of strange and twisted loyalties which may never be fully explained.

You must have hit a nerve then that never quit buzzing for some folk. Your life appears to be fine nonetheless, you have my respect. No further comment.

11/09/2016 - 5:23pm Idk why,

but after reading

My mom is right, I am such an asshole.

I had to sign on just to upvote. Maybe because I sense a kindred spirit.

11/02/2016 - 7:45pm Just because

the corrupted, ethically-challenged and utterly faithless NCAA counts them doesn't mean we have to. I mean, this is your own metric, isn't it? Why not just include the condition "wins involving collaboration with and enablement of pederasty are automatically vacated?"

If you take off about 10 wins for every season from when Paterno started suppressing evidence of pederasty and rape in 1976 to when he was dismissed, I think PSU drops safely off the list.

10/09/2016 - 8:20pm According to the press conference,

the 2-pointer was on call in each of the four first scoring possessions, the the fourth one was the first time the D setup was favorable for the attempt.

After that, Harbaugh took the 2-point option out of the call for the rest of the game -- in order to spare tender sensibilities.

10/09/2016 - 8:15pm It was


That was the year the Ohio State faculty senate turned down the Rose Bowl invitation, and Minnesota went two years in a row while the Pac-8 and the Big 10 continued to play without a Rose Bowl contract in effect.

Only two OSU players were kept off the field by injuries in 1961. That year was an encapsulation of Woody's best and worst tendencies.

10/09/2016 - 8:07pm This is

John Lee Hooker:

10/06/2016 - 12:56pm You mean

a yog-yurt?

10/05/2016 - 4:16pm "Cooper . . .

was 0-2-1 against Arizona

Didn't know this. At the time that OSU was seeking a successor to Woody, the only coach they had not harrassed out of town since before 1951, Cooper was 1-0-0 against M, Bo and QB Jim Harbaugh in the 1987 Rose Bowl. Since they were being impatient, a hasty decision was the natural outcome.

I have relatives in that fanbase. They were mildly dissatisfied at the time, despite holding their own in the rivalry.

10/05/2016 - 3:48pm Nobody hated Woody

more than I, mainly for the abrasive simplicity with which he embraced the Rivalry. I delighted in the bad publicity that his many outbursts brought to himself and his mission.

However, I hesitate to oversimplify and minimize the stature of what he brought to the game. The Gator Bowl punch rightly ended his career, but on the way there there was:

The Ohio State Faculty Senate's refusal of the 1962 Rose Bowl invitation in December 1961. Accounts vary, and it was apparently (PDF)team co-captain Mike Ingram who addressed OSU students demonstrating against John Fullen and the Faculty Senate and told them to go home and study for their exams. Even so, it is fair to say he was speaking for Hayes, who told an alumni group at the Hollendem Hotel in Cleveland the day the decision was handed down the following (Roy Terrill, SI (online archive), 9-24-1962 ):

I would not want football to drive a line of cleavage in our university. Football is not worth that.

I think it is fair to say that his scrapes with the NCAA came in part from his sincere educational mission (87.6% graduation rate per Rex Kern in the '70s; "Of that, 37 percent went on to graduate or professional school.") and concern for the welfare of his players.

On financial assistance:

"One of those boys came to me and said he had only one pair of pants. 'Can't you get a loan?' I asked him. 'I tried,' he said, 'They told me it would take four months.' Hell, a pair of pants can get to be awfully dirty in four months. Sure I gave him the money."

Player safety:

For two years his boys have been wearing a plastic helmet cushioned on the outside, to protect others, as well as on the inside. "Of course this outside padding isn't doing us much good," he grumbles. "Everyone should use it."

Hayes has even plotted the area of greatest incidence of knee injuries—it is an arc 20 yards laterally from the point where the ball is positioned to start play—and says this is another reason why his teams run inside the ends most of the time.

Even when an Ohio State halfback gets loose, he is instructed not to hug the sidelines but to stay at least a yard inside the field. When penned in, the runner has room to ride with, and better absorb, a hard side tackle.

In the spring practice of 1962 not one Ohio State football player was even dazed from a blow on the head, and they do not play patty-cake in an Ohio State scrimmage even in the spring. . . Last season only two Ohio State boys were unable to start games because of injuries.

Back in the day, of course I loathed the man who helmed the team I feared and hated above all others. But in judging others, let us remember the words of Wilhelm Furtwängler: "It is a fallacy to suppose that greatness arises from a lack of flaws."

10/04/2016 - 1:17pm Plus 1

for "Noh."

07/24/2016 - 6:45am Whole game

is posted to YouTube.

07/24/2016 - 6:31am Alexander Nevsky (Prokofiev)

Alone [Одна] (Shostakovich)

As of 2010, it appears a full restored version of Fritz Lang's Metropolis exists with a restored film score by Gottfried Huppertz.

03/11/2016 - 5:23pm The Able book

was an indirect primary source for a quotation. I have been taught to cite primary sources where available even if they aren't the proximate source for cited information.

Most people I know are unaware of the interwar consequences of the British Blockade and famine, let alone the existence of a bibliography of titles on the subject. I picked the element thereof already connected with other cited sources. I can't tell if you would rather I had not mentioned it.

You're right, this is fun.

PS. Thanks for the movie link.

03/09/2016 - 9:22pm In the midst

of slinging three two provocative new jabs, you interpolate the words "let's just not argue." I don't think it works like this; in fairness, a response is mandatory, but I'm fine not calling it an "argument."


I invented "cannot" when I was told 900,000 deaths = 400,000...

I don't know where this comes from; but it appears that are pointing a finger at me. Here is what I said:

Approximately 400,000 to 900,000 of these . . .

and then

Not all numbers agree, for methodological or political or whatever reasons, . . .

I have trouble believing that a reader of MgoBlog like you is innocent of the concept of approximation, ranges of estimated values or extraction of data from conflicting sources. This statement is therefor plainly astonishing. At any rate, if you are hoping therewith to transmit the blame for your manufacture of "cannot" to my humble self, I don't think this will do it.

Two: (edit). Reading comprehension failure on my part. I was totally totally wrong. Nevermind.

Three two:

I think you are manufacturing denial by equating atrocities here

This is too vague to contest, but it comes close to calling me a liar, and I object. "Manufacturing denial" is a locution perilously homophonic to the metaphorical Third Rail of "Holocaust Denial." Just in case, I refer to the Edwin Black books I linked above if there is any thought of laying that slander at my feet.

In any case, if you are going to call someone a liar, you need to at least make your accusation clear enough to permit an answer.

I don't like spending time justifying and defending myself, but the only thing worse is not doing it when it is clearly called for.

Since you bring up Noam Chomsky, I hope you don't mind if I express amazement at the idea that Chomsky is less read than the late Howard Zinn. (Maybe I look at it in a different way than you do.) Zinn's bibliography runs to dozens of titles, but I have always imagined that the bulk of his fame is from his People's History, which has sold, per WIKI, 2,000,000 or so copies in its first 36 years. Chomsky is from a more purely academic background, and his bibliography runs to hundreds of titles dating back more than sixty years; his published political commentaries date back to ca. 1967. I think the MSM are more rigorously controlled now than they were back in the day; it was not unknown to see Chomsky or his contemporary Gore Vidal on primetime television facing off against mainstream figures like William Buckley. According to the NYT, a single of Chomsky's titles, Hegemony or Survival: America’s Quest for Global Dominance, was in a print run of 250,000 books after two-and-a-half years, albeit with the help of a mention at the UN in a speech by Hugo Chavez. I knew of Chomsky before I knew of Zinn. I don't know how to begin to acquire the data to test your comparison objectively; it doesn't appear to be readily available. Given a reputation well-established in certain circles and a catalog of published political commentary going back four-and-a-half decades, I wouldn't dismiss the range of Chomsky's influence that lightly.

I would like to end on the note that "there are good people on all sides of history." I don't think imperialistic governments are that different from one another as people seem to want to think they are. I also don't think that people are that different from one another as imperial governments seen to want us to think they are, either. WIKI has attributed the essense of their following paraphrase to Viktor Frankl: "He often said that even within the narrow boundaries of the concentration camps he found only two races of Men to exist: decent and unprincipled ones."

To second your point, I'd like to finish by naming three "good people" on different sides of history: John Rabe, Managing Director of the Siemens offices in Nanking at the time of the Japanese invasion, who used the swastika flag as a shield against occupying forces to save 250,000 Chinese from Japanese atrocities (diaries recently discovered and published); Japanese Consul-General Chiune Sugihara in Kaunas, Lithuania, who considerably exceeded his authority in extending Japanese transit visas to thousands of Jews threatened by the tenuous state of the Soviet-German relations in July 1940, an action that saved maybe 6000 lives and, finally, Warrant Officer Hugh Thompson, a helicopter pilot who blew the whistle on the My Lai massacre while in progress and personally rescued 12 individuals from the midst of the slaughter by posing his helicopter in front of intended victims and confronting the pursuing members of 2nd Platoon, C Company directly.

03/09/2016 - 8:47pm PS.

If you will post a diary book review of Abel's book when you are finished, I promise to up-vote it first thing after I see it.

I have to confess I only know of it via secondary sources.

03/02/2016 - 1:10am "Which one is it?"

Let's pick one and ask "Which one is it?"

How about:

you state that the flu pandemic death toll cannot be separated from the deaths attributed to the blockade then you overtly state that they were excluded. Which one is it?

If you go back to the original wording:

It is harder to separate those deaths in Germany from those caused by the famine because malnutrition frequently serves as a backdrop while opportunistic diseases pick off those who have been weakened by hunger . . .

you will find that your representation "cannot" is your own invention; I never said any such thing. I said "harder." "Harder than what?," you might ask.

Let's consider the backdrop for flu deaths in the US in 1918-9. If you go to Gutenberg[dot]com, "WWI casualties," column headed "Excess civilian deaths (due to famine, disease & accidents)," the entry for the US is blank, which a glance at the rest of the table will tell you means "0." In an epidemiological setting like this one, it can be accepted in a general statistical sense that sometimes a flu death is just a flu death.

What about a more complex setting for for overall demographic disease etiology, say the combined flu pandemic and blockade-induced famine in Germany in 1918-9? I think it would be justifiable to say "It is harder."

As illustration of this general concept, here are the words of James P. Grant from The 1982 [UNICEF] State of the World's Children Report (PDF), p. 3, describing the living conditions of the poorest quarter of the human race at that time:

Today, an invisible malnutrition touches the lives of approximately one quarter of the developing world's young children. It quietly steals away their energy; it gently restrains their growth; it gradually lowers their resistance. And in both cause and consequence it is inextricably interlocked with the illnesses and infections which both sharpen, and are sharpened by, malnutrition itself [emphasis mine].

Now, going back to the situation in Germany in 1918-9, does this mean that no public health officials or other experts attempted, then or later, to separate the composite strands of morbidity and mortality? That nobody made the effort to parse the question, "Would this child have died of flu due to the flu pandemic absent malnutrition due to the famine, or not?"

It appears (World Library) that a December 1918 report by the German Board of Public Health and two studies by the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, in 1928 and 1940, all reported numbers both for "civilian deaths over the pre war level primarily due to food and fuel shortages in 1917–1918" and for "Spanish flu deaths in 1918." Not all numbers agree, for methodological or political or whatever reasons, but this distinction is made in each of the three.

If you look back at my original language, I said:

nevertheless, [emphasis added; you may have missed this word the first time -- this is an example of what is called nuance] the public health officials of the time have made that distinction.

So now, regarding your question, "Which one is it?," I think you will have to agree that not just one or the other but both of my statements are exactly correct as originally formulated, as unbelievable as it may seem.

I am not going to go through your entire comment line by line in this way; even if I had the endurance to write it no-one would have the patience to read it. If you read both my and your comments carefully, I think you can deconstruct your argument yourself using the above as a model.

To speak generally now, this whole comment situation arose in the midst of a conversation in which the rise of Hitler was being discussed as a more or less abstract question of political science as if it were a discussion of a typical American election year. "In a vacuum," to use your own words, reflecting, I think, a generally low level of awareness of the British Blockade and of its immediate and long-term effects both inside and outside Germany on the part of the general American public.

I don't propose to expound on whether the Blockade was a legitimate tool of war or not (the experts have argued this point for 100 years), but I suggest that the rise of Hitler is one of many historical judgements on the long-term consequences of this kind of warfare against civilian populations.

If you consider the word "domino," I think you can conceptualize how the NS government can be held accountable for its own deeds without implying that Nazism came out of a vacuum, to use your word again.

I did refer to some of the omissions in the mainstream historical record of the US in response to the challenge, "to give the Nazis and their allies a pass because we did bad stuff is ludicrous." It works both ways; I point out that the US narrative of the US role in the victory over NS Germany serves as the opening to a larger system of obscurantist manufacture of consent.

You do a service pointing out the profitable involvement of much of the US big business community in the darkest dealings of the NS government. Edwin Black has done yeoman work in bringing this era out of the shadows of the historical record, for instance in his book IBM and the Holocaust. I didn't enter into this because it doesn't apply directly to the question of how Hitler came to power in the first place.

02/29/2016 - 2:04pm "O'Maize"

Love it.

02/26/2016 - 3:29am PS.

Kudos to your grand-dad.

02/26/2016 - 3:05am I don't think

we're as far apart as you make it sound.

First of all, I didn't:

"You're blaming the gawdawful flu on Anglo-American policy? And the Armenian genocide?"

The UK-US naval blocade of the European continent from 1914 to July, 1919 killed approximately 5 million Europeans, including Turks, not including the deaths from the influenza pandemic nor the Turkish Armenian massacre of 1915.

In case it's not clear from the above, the flu pandemic was an intercontinental catastrophy that killed somewhere around 21 million people in the US alone in 1918-9. It is harder to separate those deaths in Germany from those caused by the famine because malnutrition frequently serves as a backdrop while opportunistic diseases pick off those who have been weakened by hunger; nevertheless, the public health officials of the time have made that distinction.

The Armenian genocide, of course, was the outcome of the state policy of the Young Turks ruling the Ottoman Empire in the WWI era.

"You're also letting Nazi supporters off damned easy by saying that Hitler was the only voice advocating restoring Germany to pre-war status that we destroyed."

Let us say, the only practical choice. Even in the election of 1932 against Hindenburg, Hindenburg was more concerned with transferring blame for the loss of the war onto others ("dochstoss") than with challenging the post-war international regime. If you know of any other prominant and influential (Austro-)German politicians publicly and unashamedly advocating directly for the nullification of the Versailles Treaty at that time, I have overlooked it; I welcome correction on that point. By the way, Hitler came in second in that election. It was Hindenburg who elevated him to power as a political appointment.

"Look at the stats on unemployment in New York alone and tell me that Germany was so devasted . . ."

This is an expression of first-world incomprehension of the extremity of the condition that warfare can reduce people to, something the European immigrants to the US continent have never experienced directly at home. Unemployment is not the same as general famine. For a grim description of the condition Germany was in in 1919 after 5 years of English, and then Anglo-American blockade, more like that of the Biafran famine in the Nigerian civil war or the Bangledeshi famine of 1971 during the war of Bangladeshi independence than New York in the Great Depression, we can turn to page 164 of Herbert Hoover's The Ordeal of Woodrow Wilson. (By the way, Hoover, who we can see was obviously touched by the misery he witnessed, is letting Wilson off easy here; Wilson was the primary architect of the tightening of the blockade after the armistice. Banglesh had another major famine in 1942-3 as a direct result of English colonial economics under the direct hand of Churchill. WWI UK PM David Lloyd George, who presided over the "hunger blockade," later became an enthusiastic advocate for Hitler; excepting Churchill, the UK ruling class didn't turn against Hitler until he took himself out of their plans for the encirclement of the Soviet Union with the Nazi-Soviet non-aggression pact of 1939.)

"And to say what the Nazis did is a mirror to what was inflicted on them?"

No. What I said was that the latitude Germans gave the NS regime was a reflection of the scars inflicted on the people of Germany during the hunger blocade and kept raw by the aggressive postwar regime and occupation of Germany. And yes, the policies of the NS German government are the responsibility of -- the NS German government.

BTW, the US itself approached insurrection in several local events such as the San Francisco waterfront strikes and the auto strikes in Detroit. FDR kept an authoritarian lid on these while himself surviving at least one coup attempt. Remember that Hitler ultimately made it to power as part of a government power play, not by a vote of the people. The Nazi share of Reichstag deputies was actually diminished in the last election prior to Hitler's appointment by Hindenberg.

"to give the Nazis and their allies a pass because we did bad stuff is ludicrous."

I don't think I did. I'm just saying that our mainstream conformist historians and journalists have a tendency to shade the picture a little bit, consciously or otherwise, for reasons they may not even understand.

On the other hand, to give our own leaders a free pass for massive aerial bombings killing millions of civilians in North Korea or Laos, indirect involvement in atrocities such as the genocide in East Timor, and much much more than most people realize over the course of the last 70 years because the Nazis did bad stuff is equally ludicrous but a lot easier to get away with.

"And tell me that American-Anglo history has been "scrubbed" when we have Zinn's "People's History" readily available? No."

The presence of literature by dissident intellectuals does not negate the effect of a coherent narrative in the mainstream media and in state-sanctioned teaching materials. Per Wiki, Zinn's book has sold 2 million copies since 1980, a span of 36 years. Time and Newsweek combine to deliver something like 5 million copies each week. I dare say there is little in either of them to resemble the content of People's History. Comparing even relatively popular books like Zinn's to the reach of the MSM, concentrated in, by now, about five major corporations reaching over 90% of US readers and viewers, I think it is fair to say that Zinn's ideas are the property of a thin sliver of the American public, and that, for the vast majority, our history and the reflections of it in conformist media are fairly well "scrubbed."

"Saying that Anglo-American policy is part of the story is defensible. Saying it is all of the story is not."

That's what I think I did:

Anglo-American critiques of history, economics and politics have a tendency to be scrubbed of the role of state coercion, brutality and mass murder in shaping the modern world in those cases where the US or the UK is involved.

I merely point out that each national world-view has its own filter; for instance, if you go to France, I bet it is difficult to find anything in print blaming Mitterand for the Greenpeace vessel bombing of 1986. This is part of ours.

By the way, I think the US and the UK should be thought of as more influential and, to some extent, more culpable than the rest of the world's countries for the state of the global economy. There are many things that go into this, but among them is the "exorbitant privilege" conferred on a national currency by global reserve status. If we look at the world in the early 1860s, about 60% of global transactions were taking place using the English Pound Sterling. This privileged position pertained until the effects of WWI debts to the US effected a transition to the US Dollar as the global reserve currency, enshrined in the Bretton Woods agreements from July 1944. Much global intrigue (see Zbigniew Brzezinski's The Grand Chessboard) is rooted in the question of control over the global financial system; by this measure, the only global hegemonic powers since the US Civil War era have been the UK and the US.

02/22/2016 - 9:24pm I was expecting

this one:

02/21/2016 - 9:14pm There is a tendency

in Anglo-American accounts of the interwar years to discuss Hitler's rise to power in an historical vacuum which conveniently leaves the behavior of the Anglo-Saxon powers out of the historical discussion.

The UK-US naval blocade of the European continent from 1914 to July, 1919 killed approximately 5 million Europeans, including Turks, not including the deaths from the influenza pandemic nor the Turkish Armenian massacre of 1915. Approximately 400,000 to 900,000 of these were German citizens, 250,000 of whom died between November 1918 and July 1919 after fighting stopped as the Allies continued to use starvation as a weapon to force the non-combatant German nation to sign the Versailles Treaty which essentially abolished German sovereingty and gave control to the Western powers.

Czarist Russia, Germany, Austria-Hungary and Turkey all lost governments as a result of general insurrections rooted in the breakdown of the civilized order expected in any modern nation state as a result of the general famine. As always, the death toll is only the tip of the iceberg for estimating the impact of the famine on the lives and mental states of the generation of Europeans who were children.

Following the war, the US took a self-defeatingly hard line on collection of war debts, most notably from the UK. These debts eventually destabilized the Pound Sterling as a global reserve currency, leading to US dollar hegemony by the end of WWII. In the mean time, the UK and France passed on this hard line of debt collection to Germany, pushing it harder into the abyss of economic and potential social failure. Germany also had no regulatory resources to control the banks whose uncontrolled lending and speculation drove the hyperinflation of 1923.

The general German condition of the interwar years was a direct experience of the mortal threat of starvation followed by the constant threat of the breakdown of the structure of lawful society that is taken for granted in a modern industrial state. In 1934, Columbia University sociologist Theodore Abel went to Germany with a grant to obtain autobiographical essays from Hitler supporters, 600 of which he published in his 1938 book Why Hitler Came into Power: An Answer Based on the Original Life Stories of Six Hundred of His Followers. Peter Loewenberg, "The Psychohistorical Origins of the Nazi Youth Cohorts," American Historical Review 76, no. 5 (December 1971): 1457–502, writes, based on Abel's documentary work, that "the most striking emotional affect expressed in the Abel autobiographies are the adult memories of intense hunger and privation from childhood."

There is no need to go to any great lengths to explain Hitler's appeal to this generation of people. Hitler was simply the only widely-known political figure then talking about fundamentally overturning the post-war order and restoring German sovereignty, ie, removing the mortal threat to the most basic requirements of human life that had been unaddressed since the teeth of the UK blocade started to bite, resulting in widespread malnutrion sometime around 1916.

The brutality that Germans ceded to Hitler is a mirror of the brutality inflicted on them during Germany's attempted rise to true sovereignty in the WWI era. This kind of brutality was also part of European colonialism in general, especially in the WWI era and continuing at least up to the UK murder of 300,000 Kenyan civilians during the independence struggle of 1948-63.

Anglo-American critiques of history, economics and politics have a tendency to be scrubbed of the role of state coercion, brutality and mass murder in shaping the modern world in those cases where the US or the UK is involved. A think there is an argument to be made that reducing the rise of Hitler to an isolated intellectual socio-political narrative falls into this category.

02/18/2016 - 4:48pm Your argument is well-crafted,

but everyone knows that the transitive property doesn't work in college football.